Tuesday, August 25, 2020
America is a nation based on majority rules system, uniformity, and fundamental consideration for all residents. The Department of Health and Human and nearby divisions under its course, work to secure, and care for general society. By forestalling plagues, securing against ecological perils, advancing solid practices, gathering measurable information, and numerous different assets, general wellbeing guarantees that the legislature maintains the requirements of its residents. General wellbeing has a longstanding history that has developed after some time to meet the regularly evolving condition, the development of innovation and the developing populace. Though general wellbeing keeps up the requirements of the populace everywhere, network wellbeing focuses on the vulnerabilities and requests of specific network. Assets The neighborhood general wellbeing divisions in this authorsÃ¢â¬â¢ provincial region incorporates seven districts. Administrations incorporate clinical help, network wellbeing, instructive occasions, youth programs, the study of disease transmission reconnaissance, home wellbeing, arranging and catastrophe readiness, and school wellbeing (Lincoln Trial District Health Department, 2014). All the more explicitly, by offering administrations, for example, disease screening, WIC programs, pain advising, and numerous others, the general wellbeing division underpins the objective of keeping up the prosperity of people in general. The Department of Health and Human assets is the national general wellbeing administrative division that keeps up general wellbeing. Ã¢â¬Å"The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is the United States governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s head organization for ensuring the strength everything being equal and offering fundamental human types of assistance, particularly for the individuals who are least ready to help themselvesÃ¢â¬ (U.S.Ã Department of Health and Human Services, 2014, para. 1). The HHS works with nearby and state wellbeing divisions to find financing, offer types of assistance, gather information, and advance science through examination to guarantee that constituents of America have the social, mental, and physical clinical needs paying little heed to their social standing. History of Public Health Ã¢â¬Å"The crucial general wellbeing has its foundations in the mid-nineteenth century, when doctors, lodging reformers, advocates for poor people, and researchers prepared in new strategies of science and structural building met up to battle issues becoming out of urbanization, industrialization, and huge scope migration. This alliance changed the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s economy and condition, and, thusly, its wellbeing. High demise rates and epidemic had since quite a while ago influenced rich and poor networks alikeÃ¢â¬ (Fairchild, Rosner, Colgrove, Bayer, and Fried, 2010, p. 54). The article depicts AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s wellbeing weakening by the mid-nineteenth century from episodes, for example, smallpox, cholera, typhoid, yellow fever, and different intestinal ailments. The poor were frequently accused for these scourges, in this way the split between social classes developed. In 1940, the American Public Health Association redressed a code of administrations that general wellbeing divisions were to give. They were: Ã¢â¬Å"collecting information on indispensable measurements; controlling transferable ailments through strategies, for example, flare-up examinations; contact following; accomplice notices, and (once in a while) disconnection and isolate; guaranteeing ecological sanitation; giving lab administrations to the determination of sicknesses by private specialists, medical clinics, and different clinicians; offering maternal, newborn child, and kid wellbeing administrations; and giving educationÃ¢â¬ (Fairchild, Rosner, Colgrove, Bayer, and Fried, 2010, p. 57). Following this period, general wellbeing has encountered change and change that proceeds right up 'til the present time. From social medication to current troubling monetary conditions, general wellbeing, albeit profoundly established in prosperity and practices that help it, despite everything battles between social requests, political restriction, and corporate specifications. General wellbeing continues keeping up its fundamental beliefs. Regardless of what alterations general wellbeing may experience, evaluation, strategy advancement and confirmation keep on serving the oppressed or those out of luck. DifferenceÃ Between Public and Community Health As per Stanhope and Lancaster (2012), Ã¢â¬Å"Public wellbeing has been characterized and depicts as a framework and social undertaking; a calling; an assortment of strategies, information, and methods; legislative wellbeing administrations, particularly clinical consideration for poor people and underserved; and the wellbeing status of the publicÃ¢â¬ (p. 243). In that capacity, general wellbeing includes the general population on a national or worldwide level by ensuring the psychological, physical, and social prosperity of people. For example, the World Health Organization (WHO) was presented on April 7, 1948. Ã¢â¬Å"The center elements of WHO are as per the following: Ã¢â¬ ¢providing authority on issues basic to wellbeing and participating in associations where joint activity is required; Ã¢â¬ ¢shaping the examination plan and invigorating the age, interpretation and scattering of significant information; Ã¢â¬ ¢setting standards and guidelines and advancing and checking their usage; Ã¢â¬ ¢articulating moral and proof based approach choices; Ã¢â¬ ¢providing specialized help, catalyzing change, and building practical institutional limit; and Ã¢â¬ ¢monitoring the wellbeing circumstance and surveying wellbeing trendsÃ¢â¬ (World Health Organization, 2014, para. 1) Network wellbeing under the umbrella of general wellbeing focuses on a populace in a specific region. As per Stanhope and Lancaster (2008), the WHO characterizes network as, Ã¢â¬Å"A people group is a social gathering controlled by geographic limits, basic qualities and interestsÃ¢â¬ (p. 342). Network wellbeing concentrates its endeavors of evaluation, strategy improvement, and affirmation on nearby populace, of which have changed requirements and vulnerabilities. Assets for a particular network might be unique in relation to assets for another network, so the center elements of network wellbeing must be custom fitted to fit every individual zone. All in all, general wellbeing guarantees the psychological, physical, and social government assistance of which individuals are entitled. Network wellbeing focuses its endeavors on the individuals of a topographical region. As the requirements of the region and a network change, general wellbeing must keep up their administrations to fulfill needs. Americans have the open door through general wellbeing to utilize the assets available to them to continue a solid way of life. References Fairchild, A., Rosner, D., Colgrove, J., Bayer, R., and Fried, L. (2010). The EXODUS of general wellbeing. What history can educate us concerning what's to come? American Journal of Public Health, 100(1), 54-63. Lincoln Trial District Health Department. (2014). Our administrations. Recovered from http://www.ltdhd.ky.gov Stanhope, M., and Lancaster, J. (2012). General wellbeing nursing; Population-focused medicinal services in the network (eighth ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier. U.S. Division of Health and Human Services. (2014). About HHS. Recovered from http://www.hhs.gov World Health Organization. (2014). The job of WHO in general wellbeing. Recovered from http://www.who.int
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Improvement Of Psychological Thoughts In The Philippines It began during the 1980s. With regards to Philippine pioneer training, Filipinos accept that logical brain science originated from the West. Murray Bartlett, an American built up undergrad brain research courses in the College of Education, University of the Philippines. American reading material and English language were utilized as the vehicle of guidance. The beneficial thing here is that artistic composing was in Filipino language that was in predominance. Francis Burton Harrisons strategy of fascination was additionally presented during this time.Ã¢ Ã¢ Crafted by del Pilar, Jacinto and Pardo de Tavera were rich wellsprings of mental hypotheses despite the fact that they were disseminators and not therapists. Indeed, even Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo referenced the term Psicologos del verbo Tagalog in his discourse. They were not title holders in Psychology however they despite everything have this inborn nature. The English language and the American arrangement of Education were the instruments utilized. During the twenties American brain science instructors were supplanted by Filipinos.Ã¢ Ã¢ The Philippine issue with uncritical importation of Americans Psychological models tested a portion of the Filipinos. The principal endeavor was finished by Sinsiforo Padilla who took over from Alonzos position as a director at the University of the Philippines. By and by, it was his associate Manuel Carreon who took the clubs for fitting important mental testing. 1926 he distributed in New York his Ph.D. entitled the Philippine Studies in Mental Measurement. The contentions he introduced was legitimate however the his off-base move was he distributed it in English. No one tuned in to him in light of the fact that during that time the greater part of clinicians were ahead and they directed American tests. Some saw piece of Carreons message were changed to fit the Philippine setting. change-apples-to-bananasÃ¢ Ã¢ Isidoro Panlasigui recognized the new culture of Psychology. The third era of American programmed Filipino therapists like Panlasigui. Because of this, Panlasigui respects America and it was obviously indicated when he expounded on the brain science of the Filipino as he battled for the provincial language to be utilized. Alfredo V. Lagmay and his associates were sent to the United States not to kill the office. Lagmay contemplated Psychology in Harvard where he was prepared in the zone of Experimental Psychology. He returned to the Philippines during the poor turmoil under Hukbalahap with Luis Taruc, as the head. During that time, the Department of Psychology in the University of the Philippines was a piece of the College of Education. It was then Lagmays first move to move it to the College of Liberal Arts by changing the instructive perspective to an increasingly logical premise of direction. Test Psychology is presently an indispensable piece of the undergrad educational program in Philippine schools and it was a direct result of him. The U.P Department of Psychology was seen as conduct direction structure the 50s up to mid 70s. His understudies proceeded with some astounding and huge examinations in the field.Ã¢ Ã¢ The History and Lines of Filiations in Philippine Psychological Thought Brain research Academic This part of brain research turned out to be a piece of college educational plan under Francisco Benitez during 1922. It was first instructed in the University of the Philippines as a piece of the training educational plan. This is the period wherein a few investigations in brain research, for example, Experimental Psychology, Educational Psychology and Psychology of Advice Giving were presented. It was said that the Western Psychology originally entered the UP framework however it was spread broadly in UST (University of Sto. Tomas) and University of San Carlos in Cebu. During the time of 1954, Joseph Goertz set up the Department of Psychology and utilized English as the mode of educating. Then again, amidst its development in Manila this control was additionally presented as a course in the University of St. Louis in Cordillera. It was encouraged by Fr. Evarist Louis an evangelist priest.Ã¢ Ã¢ Brain research Academic Philosophy Be that as it may, Psychology-Academic Philosophy was set up first at University of Sto. Tomas by Spaniards and improved by the Jesuits. This perspective was more established than the viewpoint referenced previously. It began and established in numerous colleges like UST (University of Sto. Tomas) and other Spanish organizations like San Ignacio and San Jose. In such organizations the clinical and theory courses began. The thoughts and set up accounts on that time apparently was identified with Psychology. In a more profound investigation those can contain the lifestyle previously. It incorporates the language , how the indio see the idea of self ,its reactions and the exercises of the antiquated human advancement. Ethnic Psychology The third part of Psychology known as Ethnic Psychology. It begins from the Filipinos and through the impact of different nations. It isn't just more seasoned yet additionally much confused contrasted with the past perspectives. It has numerous strands to be snared and one of those is simply the brain research that originated from the Filipinos themselves. An indigenous brain research that is possessed or affected by different nations. The language is a cone crediting factor particularly those exercises that can show the aggregate encounters of Filipinos. Crafted by Jose Rizal and Isabelo de los Reyes were comprised of Filipino Psychology and it was extraordinarily associated with the Psycho-Medical Psychology of our forefathers.Ã¢ Ã¢ Social Psychology The investigation of Social Psychology is characterized as an orderly investigation of the nature and reasons for human social conduct. Principally, its anxiety is about human social conduct. It incorporates a great deal of issues with respect to the people sway on others, the procedures of social connection and the relationship that exist between people in the general public. It isn't simply worried about the idea of social conduct yet in addition with its causes. The investigation tries to disentangle the reasons and pre states of social conduct. It likewise delineates the investigation of social conduct in a powerful manner. It depends on procedures, discoveries, investigations and studies. In asking what the investigation is about its 4 fundamental concerns were additionally considered as a methods for knowing it unmistakably. Fundamentally it is about the effect that one individual has on another, the effect that a gathering has on its individuals then the other way around and t he effect of a gathering to another group.Ã¢ Ã¢ With regards to the order in a working definition. Analysts concentrate in understanding the conduct of people inside the setting of society. It is basically worried about the comprehension of the how and why people act, think and feel as the manner in which they do. In managing conduct we mean sentiments and contemplations just as clear actions.Ã¢ Ã¢ Subsequently, it is characterized as a logical investigation of how a people conduct, contemplations and emotions are impacted by a few factors that can be genuine or envisioned in the structure or the nearness of others. The field takes a gander at conduct and mental procedures remembering the social world for which we exist, as we are encircled by other whom we are associated and by whom we are affected from various perspectives. It centers around influence.Ã¢ Ã¢ The meaning of Social Psychology in the Filipino setting was clarified through the meeting that I have directed. As per Ms. Leslee Natividad from the Department of Social Sciences, University of the Philippines, Los BaÃ¦'Ã¢â¬ os ,when I solicited her what is the job from Filipino Social Psychology in the more profound comprehension of Filipino conduct? She offered me a definition to response the inquiry . First we need to characterize first what Social Psychology is soÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Social Psychology is the investigation of how people influence the general public and how the general public is influencing the individual .If would relate Filipino into that on how the Filipino is influenced by the general public that we have here in the Philippines and possibly on the planet when all is said in done. Presently the world and the Philippine society influence the Filipino person. As an individual, everything that we are encountering around us. Things that we are seeing, things that we are hearing, things that are influencing every single snapshot of our lives that is a piece of Filipino Social Psychology. The entirety of our conduct is formed by the sorts of encounters that we have.Ã¢ Ã¢ 3 Main Areas of Social Psychology Social Influence It is the manner by which others influence our conduct. It is a procedure through which the nearness of others can straightforwardly or in a roundabout way impact a person. These are manners by which others influence our practices through musings and activities. How we are raised by specific individuals to whom we interface can influence our conduct. It changes with Conformity, Compliance and Obedience. Similarity which relates to the changing of ones own conduct to all the more intently coordinate the activities of others, Several investigations recommend that people will change their conduct to fit in with those of the gathering. They can be impact by private versus up close and personal contact Plus, the sex and culture. Consistence is the demonstration of changing their conduct because of someone else or bunch requesting that they change. Especially, it happened when there is nonattendance of power and force. Dutifulness is additionally a method of changing conduct at an immediate request of a position figure. Social Cognition It is characterized as the manners in which how individuals contemplates others and how they act toward others. It fluctuates as a result of perspectives which comprise of the manner in which an individual feels and thinks too an individual acts. Impression development is additionally a piece of cognizance which is framing the main information or judgment about an individual seen just because. Attribution is simply the way toward clarifying conduct or others. They utilize this to comprehend the social world through mental processes.Ã¢ Ã¢ What was once called th
Sunday, August 9, 2020
Livinâ la Vida EspaÃ±ola (Pt. 2) TEN REASONS Why I Fell in Love With Madrid: 10. I love the Metro system in Madrid. Puts the T to shame. 9. I love the Starbucks employee who would always give me free muffins just because Im Taiwanese and I try to (somewhat) speak Spanish. 8. I love the random Chinese conversations that I have on the Metro with Chinese emigrants to the city. 7. I love the 75 degree afternoons. 6. I love the 18 year old drinking age. And the fact that wine in Spain is not just an excuse for people to get wasted. 5. I love how lunch is at 2, and dinner is at 9. 4. I love how the stores are always open at night. 3. I love Spanish food. Paella. Cocido. Fried artichokes. 2. I love my Spanish family in Madrid. 1. I love Madrid just because of the way it is. My Last Two Weeks in Spain, and Thoughts: Doing a study abroad is kind of like matchmaking. For one month (or semesters in a real study abroad), youre paired with a family, a city, and an environment that you have little to no idea about. During the remainder of your time there, you figure out when the Metro comes, you find out which shop has the best churros con chocolate, and slowly, paso a paso, you adjust to the lifestyle. I spent the eleven days between my last final and January 3 in Taiwan and then right after, I came back to MIT in anticipation to leave for Spain (after spending one night in my dorm). I must admit, on the night of January 3 (I left for Spain on January 4), I had no idea what I should expect about my stay in Spain. On a whim, I youtubed Madrid and started looking at the videos that came up trying to formulate some expectations about the city that I would be spending a month in. Most of the videos showed some elegant parks (like Parque del Buen Retiro Madrids most famous park), forbidding edifices (like Palacio Real the largest palace in Europe), or distinguished museums (like Museo del Prado best known for its collection of paintings) but of course, I knew what none of them were called at that time. I could hardly contain my excitement as I stepped off the airplane at Amsterdam. For me, this was my first time in Europe, and I was eager to see what Europe was like (well, okay, the airport is not exactly the best representation of Europe =p). I browsed the duty-free shops, and thought about Spain and also the Spanish class I would be taking (!! Dont forget that it wasnt a complete 100% vacation =p). For me, I havent done Spanish classes since the first semester of senior year, and to be honest, my high school Spanish class wasnt of the greatest calibre either. What would I think about the Spanish instruction at MIT? What would 4 weeks of intensive language classes be like? When we (me and another girl from my program that I met on the airplane) finally got to Madrid, we could not find our contact (who was supposed to give us directions on getting to our respective houses), so we wandered in the airport reception hall for an hour or so (we eventually ended up finding him, though). After the instructions and whatnot, I finally set off towards my house. The house wasnt hard to find (once you figure out how Spanish addresses are written for example: C/ Santa MarÃa 67 4 Izq would mean 67, Santa Maria St., Fourth Floor on the Left also! in Spain, what we consider to be the first floor is actually called planta baja (ground floor) and their primera planta (first floor) is actually our second floor). With some nervousness, I rung the doorbell to the apartment and the caretaker came and asked me what I wanted. With (really bad) Spanish, I explained who I was looking for, and he directed me upstairs. Now, with A LOT MORE nervousness, I rung the doorbell to the house, and waited for a response. For ten minutes, no one responded, and I started wondering whether I had the wrong address. After triple-checking, I was completely sure that I was right, and my host was just not at home. Great. I have a 35-pound suitcase with me and I wasnt going to sit here waiting the whole night for him to come back! I have to drop off my suitcase here and then come back later, once I know what the deal is with my host. Then the problem came. How the heck am I supposed to explain that I need to drop off my suitcase here and I will come back at night to the caretaker of the apartment?! (Remember, at this point, my Spanish was atrocious from lack of practice). I started formulating a draft of what I was going to say (which resembled more like a string of disconnected words rather than coherent sentences) to the caretaker, and proceeded downstairs. After gesturing a lot (I didnt know what the word for luggage was), the caretaker somewhat understood my dilemma, and told me that he would only hold on to my luggage until 9, when he got off work (I dont know how I understood all this, with my severely limited language skills in the beginning. But then again, during my month in Spain, I discovered that I had a knack of getting the big picture of what someone is saying, even though I might not understand every word =p). I found my profesor for the course, Ricardo, afterwards and asked him for help. He called my host, and (after a 30-minute discussion), found out that my host wouldnt be able to take me until next Monday (this was Saturday night) because the agency didnt tell him that I would be coming this early. Thus, I ended up spending two nights in Ricardos flat (which didnt have hot water nor heating) with another student who was also homeless. Despite the initial mishaps, I successfully moved in to my hosts house on Monday night. With a cheerful grin, he introduced himself as Arturo and showed me my room, in his tiny (but typical) Spanish flat. Espero que te gustes el pollo! (I hope you like chicken!) with that, he disappeared into his kitchen, and emerged carrying out some stewed chicken that he had prepared for me. With that, my journey in Spain began. Over the next month, I would come to know his family, his interests, and basically his life. Having grown up completely in Madrid, Arturo had only left the country a handful of times. However, boasting a CD collection in the scale of thousands, he claims that he had traveled the world through music. His grandmother, who is currently 92 and had lived through World War I, World War II, and the Spanish Civil War, still hums to the rhythm of Iberian waltzes that she heard as a young woman. His cousin (who lives with his grandmother, in another apartment apart from Arturo) is young, energetic, has two kids, and makes the best pollo con cebollas for your life. Each night, after Arturo came home from his Zen meditation at 10:30, we would have dinner in his small flat, which often consisted of rice stewed with various vegetables, some meats, chorizos, mixed salad (which sounds and is really simple, but the way he makes it tastes amazing with olive oil and salt), raisins and wine. Yes, always, raisins and wine. Over dinner (which always somehow tend to last 2 hours), we would talk about everything, from his job (telephone operator and volunteer for civil rights) to Spanish politics (as my vocabulary got progressively better). As the days progressed, I started really relishing these nights we spent together, just talking about life over a food. Its so down-to-earth, so family-like, soSpanish. Taking a language class abroad is also an experience in itself. The IAP Spanish II class meets everyday from 10 AM to 1 PM, and we go over a semesters worth of material in 4 weeks. This equals roughly two chapters in the textbook every week, about twenty vocabulary words everyday, and a major exam every Friday. Of course, I am still on Pass/No Record, so there goes my motivation. But, being entirely immersed in Spain does help though I think I learned more about vocabulary and general speaking skills from talking to Arturo and going to different restaurants than from the class itself. It is really neat that I would be learning the vocabulary for relationships in class, and I would be using the same vocabulary to talk to Arturo about his social life the same night. =p But then again, like matchmaking, not everyone was completely happy about their matches. I feel, in a large part, that the satisfaction of this study-abroad was based, significantly, by peoples happiness with their host families. There were host families who did not have hot water there were families who never talked to their host students and there were host families who posted long list of rules that the students had to follow. I was really fortunate to have found a family that I established a lasting connection with, a house that I can call home in Spain. :) On my way to the Madrid airport yesterday, I unfolded the Metro map that I received on my very first day in Madrid. Its still the same map, but is now wrinkled and crinkly from all the creases of travel. Gazing at the names of the subway stops, I marvel at how much Ive gotten to known Madrid. I know I am going to miss Spain. Well, this had been an amazing IAP, and its back to the firehose after Reg Day tomorrow! (Next IAP Preview: Im hoping to take D-Lab next term (Fall 2008), which would most probably involve a project overseas next IAP, so perhaps Ill be gone from MIT my sophomore IAP as well! Hmmm. =p)
Saturday, May 23, 2020
Red flag laws are gun violence prevention laws that allow courts to order the temporary confiscation of firearms from persons deemed to pose a risk to others or themselves. Key Takeaways: Red Flag Laws Red flag laws are state gun violence prevention laws which allow police to confiscate firearms from persons deemed by a court to pose a risk to others or themselves.As of August 2019, 17 states and the District of Columbia had enacted red flag laws.After deadly mass shootings in El Paso, Texas, and Dayton, Ohio, President Trump and a bipartisan group of Congress members have indicated their support for red flag laws. Along with gun control proposals, such as universal gun-buyer background checks, raised in the aftermath of shootings like those in Sandy Hook, Parkland, El Paso, and Dayton, demands to enact Ã¢â¬Å"red flagÃ¢â¬ laws have become common. As of August 2019, 17 states and the District of Columbia had enacted red flag laws. Red Flag Law Definition and Mechanics Red flag laws permit police or family members to ask a state court to order the temporary removal of all firearms from persons believed to present a danger to others or themselves. In deciding to issue such orders, known variously as Extreme Risk Protection Orders (ERPOs) or Gun Violence Restraining Orders (GVROs), the courts consider the past actions and statementsÃ¢â¬âincluding those posted on social media outletsÃ¢â¬âmade by the gun owner in question. If the court decides to issue the order, the gun owner must surrender all firearms to the police for a specified period of time. In addition, the person named in the order is banned from buying or selling guns during that period. Refusing to fully comply with a red flag protective order is a criminal offense. Guns seized under the order are returned to the owner after a set period of time unless that period is extended by the court. Examples of evidence required by the courts to justify granting gun confiscation orders include: A recent act or threat of violence (involving a firearm or not)Evidence of serious mental illnessHistory of domestic violenceReckless use of a firearmEvidence of substance abuse or alcoholismSworn testimony by witnesses The specific legal provisions of red flag laws and how they are enforced vary from state to state. Are Red Flag Laws Effective? Connecticut was one of the first states to enact a red flag law in 1999. According to a 2016 study published in the journal of Law and Contemporary Problems, the 762 gun removals under Connecticuts Ã¢â¬Å"risk warrantÃ¢â¬ law from October 1999 through June 2013 resulted in one suicide prevented for every ten to eleven gun seizures executed. The study concluded that Ã¢â¬Å"enacting and implementing laws like ConnecticutÃ¢â¬â¢s civil risk warrant statute in other states could significantly mitigate the risk posed by that small proportion of legal gun owners who, at times, may pose a significant danger to themselves or others.Ã¢â¬ Are Red Flag Laws Constitutional? Many gun-rights advocates say that red flag laws infringe on gun ownersÃ¢â¬â¢ Second Amendment right to Ã¢â¬Å"keep and bear arms,Ã¢â¬ as well as their right to due process of law as provided by the U.S. Constitution. Guns, they argue, are personal property, and both the Fifth and 14th Amendments specifically provide that the governmentÃ¢â¬âincluding the courts and policeÃ¢â¬âmay not deprive citizens of property without due process of law. The argument is based on the fact that the court hearings held to decide if an individual poses a threat are held ex parte, meaning that the person whose guns might be temporarily confiscated is not present at the hearing. This, critics say, violates the Sixth AmendmentÃ¢â¬â¢s guarantee of the right of accused persons to a face-to-face confrontation with witnesses against them.Ã However, hearings on all types of restraining and protective orders are typically held ex parte out of concern for the safety of the complainant and witnesses.Ã Red Flag Law Debate A Washington Post-ABC News poll conducted in April 2018 found that 85% of registered voters nationwide support laws that would Ã¢â¬Å"allow the police to take guns away from people who have been found by a judge to be a danger to themselves or others.Ã¢â¬ States with red flag laws have reported similar levels of public support for the legislation. In March 2018, the National Rifle Association (NRA), which had helped defeat red flag legislation in Utah and Maryland, suggested it might be open to such laws under a strict set of conditions, including a court finding by Ã¢â¬Å"clear and convincing evidence that the person in question poses a significant risk of danger. Despite this statement, the NRA went on to help block red flag legislation in Arizona in 2019. In Congress, virtually all Democrats and a few Republicans are receptive to red flag laws. The day after the mass shootings in El Paso, Texas, and Dayton, Ohio, killed 31 people, President Donald Trump urged states to implement red flag laws to remove guns from Ã¢â¬Å"those judged to pose a grave risk to public safety.Ã¢â¬ In televised remarks from the White House on August 5, 2019, Trump stated, Ã¢â¬Å"We must make sure that those judged to pose a grave risk to public safety do not have access to firearms and that if they do, those firearms can be taken through rapid due process.Ã¢â¬ States With Red Flag Laws As of August 2019, red flag laws had been enacted in 17 states and the District of Columbia. Twelve states enacted red flag laws after the shooting at Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, Florida, on February 14, 2018, left 17 dead. The states of California, Connecticut, Indiana, Oregon, and Washington, had enacted red flag laws prior to 2018. The 17 states and District of Columbia (in red) that had enacted red flag gun violence prevention laws as of August 2019. Creative Commons With only slight variations, all current red flag laws allow family members and law enforcement to petition a state judge to issue ERPOs directing the confiscation of all guns from the individual they believe poses a threat to their safety. In all cases, the petitioner must present evidence of why the gun owner poses a threat to others, as well as to himself or herself. If the ERPO is granted, the named individualÃ¢â¬â¢s guns are confiscated and held by police for a set minimum period, after which the gun owner must prove to the court that he or she no longer poses a risk in order to get their firearms back. Here is a list of who is allowed to request the issuance of an ERPO gun removal order in each state: California: Family, household members, and law enforcementColorado: Family, household members, and law enforcementConnecticut: One state attorney or any two police officersDelaware: Family, household members, and law enforcementDistrict of Columbia: Family, household members, mental health professionals, and law enforcementFlorida: Law enforcement onlyHawaii: Family, household members, teachers, medical professionals, coworkers, and law enforcementIllinois: Family, household members, and law enforcementIndiana: Law enforcement onlyMaryland: Family, household members, certain health professionals, and law enforcementMassachusetts: Family, household members, and law enforcementNevada: Family, household members, and law enforcementNew Jersey: Family, household members, and law enforcementNew York: Family, household members, school administrators, and law enforcementOregon: Family, household members, and law enforcementRhode Island: Law enforcement onlyVermont: State attorneys or the off ice of the state attorney general onlyWashington: Family, household members, and law enforcement As of August 2019, the state legislatures of Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and North Carolina were considering red flag legislation. Federal Red Flag Gun Control Legislation In February 2019, Senator Dianne Feinstein, Democrat of California, introduced the Extreme Risk Protection Order Act (S. 506), which would offer grants to assist states in developing red flag laws and make possessing a firearm in violation of a state red flag law a felony violation of federal firearms law. On August 5, 2019Ã¢â¬âthe day after the El Paso and Dayton shootingsÃ¢â¬âconservative Republican Senator Lindsey Graham stated that he would propose bipartisan legislation to encourage more states to adopt red flag laws. Sources and Further Reference Williams, Timothy (August 6, 2019). What Are Red Flag Gun Laws, and How Do They Work? New York Times.Parker, George F. (2015). Circumstances and Outcomes of a Firearm Seizure Law: Marion County, Indiana, 2006-2013. Behavioral Sciences the LawLaGrone, Katie. (July 30, 2018). More than 450 people in Florida ordered to surrender guns months after gun law took effect. WFTS Tampa Bay.Dezenski, Lauren. Trump backs red flag gun laws. What do they actually do? CNN. (August 5, 2019).Lindsey Graham pushes red flag bill to curb gun violence. Politico. (August 5, 2019).
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
An Analysis of the ManÃ¢â¬â¢s Epiphany in To Build a Fire The short story To Build a Fire, written by Jack London, is a tragic tale of an overconfident, inexperienced man traveling through the brutal, sub-freezing conditions of the Yukon with only the companionship of a dog. The man, un-named in this story, arrogantly decides to break from the main trail to take a less traveled route against the advice of the seasoned old-timer of Sulfur Creek, who warns of traveling alone in such severe conditions. The man is described as being without imagination and not aware of the significance of the things around him, how frail his life is. As his journey prolongs, his confidence builds as he continually cheats nature, but the temperature extendsÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In LondonÃ¢â¬â¢s story, it is this realization by the man that has him swallow his pride and ego in admittance of how frail his existence really was. The events leading to the manÃ¢â¬â¢s revelation build his character to be very pompous and arrogant; this being his first winter and a newcomer to the area, not heeding the warning of such seasoned prospects as the old-timer is foolish. He even recollects having laughed at the old-timer upon mention of Ã¢â¬Å"how cold it sometimes got in the country.Ã¢â¬ (Kennedy Giona, 2007, p. 123) His self-belief is boasted, as he is able to dupe the thin ice and avoid the freezing water beneath it multiple times, even sending the reluctant dog ahead of him in one instance. What the man lacks is basic instinct, which is inherent in the dog, to know that it is too cold to travel in such rigorous conditions. He disregards all of the signs, even though many are very much apparent to him. He can feel it getting colder in his numb limbs, and see it getting colder as his spit freezes before even reaching the ground, yet he is determined to continue. In his lack of experience, he misses the dogÃ¢â¬ â¢s hesitance to leave the fire built at lunch, as well its delay to press on over the thin ice. The manÃ¢â¬â¢s instinct has been replaced by intellect, which allows him to reason with himself into thinking that the temperature is just a number or that he can easily see where the pitfalls lay along the snowy trail. As the man travelsShow MoreRelatedPersonal Statement : The Place Blew Up The Driveway 1016 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesjust as perfect, to stay stuck inside your head for the rest of your existence. About a two years past, I had lost my job, and was in the process of moving out of my former place of residence. My plan was to split my parentÃ¢â¬â¢s garage in half, and build a room for me to stay while I got back up on my feet. Though until the room was built, I was to lay my head on the living room couch. Words cannot describe how uncomfortable that wretched sofa was. 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string(21) " she could say that\." Klaus screamed, a scream that reminded Bonnie of ancient predators, of the sabertooth cat and the bull mammoth. Blood frothed out of his mouth along with the scream, turning that handsome face into a twisted mask of fury. His hands scrabbled at his back, trying to get a grip on the white ash stake and pull it out. We will write a custom essay sample on The Vampire Diaries: Dark Reunion Chapter Fifteen or any similar topic only for you Order Now But it was buried too deep. The throw had been a good one. Ã¢â¬Å"Damon,Ã¢â¬ Bonnie whispered. He was standing at the edge of the clearing, framed by oak trees. As she watched, he took a step toward Klaus, and then another; lithe stalking steps filled with deadly purpose. And he was angry. Bonnie would have run from the look on his face if her muscles hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t been frozen. She had never seen such menace so barely held in check. Ã¢â¬Å"GetÃ¢â¬ ¦ awayÃ¢â¬ ¦ from my brother,Ã¢â¬ he said, almost breathing it, with his eyes never leaving KlausÃ¢â¬â¢s as he took another step. Klaus screamed again, but his hands stopped their frantic scrabbling. Ã¢â¬Å"You idiot! We donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to fight! I told you that at the house! We can ignore each other!Ã¢â¬ DamonÃ¢â¬â¢s voice was no louder than before. Ã¢â¬Å"Get away from my brother.Ã¢â¬ Bonnie could feel it inside him, a swell of Power like a tsunami. He continued, so softly that Bonnie had to strain to hear him, Ã¢â¬Å"Before I tear your heart out.Ã¢â¬ Bonnie could move after all. She stepped backward. Ã¢â¬Å"I told you!Ã¢â¬ screamed Klaus, frothing. Damon didnÃ¢â¬â¢t acknowledge the words in any way. His whole being seemed focused on KlausÃ¢â¬â¢s throat, on his chest, on the beating heart inside that he was going to tear out. Klaus picked up the unbroken lance and rushed him. In spite of all the blood, the blond man seemed to have plenty of strength left. The rush was sudden, violent, and almost inescapable. Bonnie saw him thrust the lance at Damon and shut her eyes involuntarily, and then opened them an instant later as she heard the flurry of wings. Klaus had plunged right through the spot where Damon had been, and a black crow was soaring upward while a single feather floated down. As Bonnie stared, KlausÃ¢â¬â¢s rush took him into the darkness beyond the clearing and he disappeared. Dead silence fell in the wood. BonnieÃ¢â¬â¢s paralysis broke slowly, and she first stepped, and then ran to where Stefan lay. He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t open his eyes at her approach; he seemed unconscious. She knelt beside him. And then she felt a sort of horrible calm creep over her, like someone who has been swimming in ice water and at last feels the first undeniable signs of hypothermia. If she hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t had so many successive shocks already, she might have fled screaming or dissolved into hysterics. But as it was, this was simply the last step, the last little slide into unreality. Into a world that couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be, but was. SheÃ¢â¬â¢d never seen anybody hurt like this. Not even Mr. Tanner, and he had died of his wounds. Nothing Mary had ever said could help fix this. Even if theyÃ¢â¬â¢d had Stefan on a stretcher outside an operating room, it wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have been enough. In that state of dreadful calm she looked up to see a flutter of wings blur and shimmer in the moonlight. Damon stood beside her, and she spoke quite collectedly and rationally. Ã¢â¬Å"Will giving him blood help?Ã¢â¬ He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem to hear her. His eyes were all black, all pupil. That barely leashed violence, that sense of ferocious energy held back, was gone. He knelt and touched the dark head on the ground. Ã¢â¬Å"Stefan?Ã¢â¬ Bonnie shut her eyes. DamonÃ¢â¬â¢s scared, she thought. DamonÃ¢â¬â¢s scared-Damon!-and oh, God, I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know what to do. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s nothing to do-and itÃ¢â¬â¢s all over and weÃ¢â¬â¢re all lost and Damon is scared for Stefan. He isnÃ¢â¬â¢t going to take care of things and he hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t got a solution and somebodyÃ¢â¬â¢s got to fix this. And oh, God, please help me because IÃ¢â¬â¢m so frightened and StefanÃ¢â¬â¢s dying and Meredith and Matt are hurt and Klaus is going to come back. She opened her eyes to look at Damon. He was white, his face looking terrifyingly young at that moment, with those dilated black eyes. Ã¢â¬Å"Klaus is coming back,Ã¢â¬ Bonnie said quietly. She wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t afraid of him anymore. They werenÃ¢â¬â¢t a centuries-old hunter and a seventeen-year-old human girl, sitting here at the edge of the world. They were just two people, Damon and Bonnie, who had to do the best they could. Ã¢â¬Å"I know,Ã¢â¬ Damon said. He was holding StefanÃ¢â¬â¢s hand, looking completely unembarrassed about it, and it seemed quite logical and sensible. Bonnie could feel him sending Power into Stefan, could also feel that it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t enough. Ã¢â¬Å"Would blood help him?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Not much. A little, maybe.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Anything that helps at all weÃ¢â¬â¢ve got to try.Ã¢â¬ Stefan whispered, Ã¢â¬Å"No.Ã¢â¬ Bonnie was surprised. SheÃ¢â¬â¢d thought he was unconscious. But his eyes were open now, open and alert and smoldering green. They were the only alive thing about him. Ã¢â¬Å"DonÃ¢â¬â¢t be stupid,Ã¢â¬ Damon said, his voice hardening. He was gripping StefanÃ¢â¬â¢s hand until his knuckles whitened. Ã¢â¬Å"YouÃ¢â¬â¢re badly hurt.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I wonÃ¢â¬â¢t break my promise.Ã¢â¬ That immovable stubbornness was in StefanÃ¢â¬â¢s voice, in his pale face. And when Damon opened his mouth again, undoubtedly to say that Stefan would break it and like it or Damon would break his neck, Stefan added, Ã¢â¬Å"Especially when it wonÃ¢â¬â¢t do any good.Ã¢â¬ Only the truth would do. And Stefan was telling the truth. He was still looking at his brother, who was looking back, all that fierce, furious attention focused on Stefan as it had been focused on Klaus earlier. As if somehow that would help. Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m not badly hurt, IÃ¢â¬â¢m dead,Ã¢â¬ Stefan said brutally, his eyes locked on DamonÃ¢â¬â¢s. Their last and greatest struggle of wills, Bonnie thought. Ã¢â¬Å"And you need to get Bonnie and the others out of here.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"We wonÃ¢â¬â¢t leave you,Ã¢â¬ Bonnie intervened. That was the truth; she could say that. You read "The Vampire Diaries: Dark Reunion Chapter Fifteen" in category "Essay examples" Ã¢â¬Å"You have to!Ã¢â¬ Stefan didnÃ¢â¬â¢t glance aside, didnÃ¢â¬â¢t look away from his brother. Ã¢â¬Å"Damon, you know IÃ¢â¬â¢m right. Klaus will be here any minute. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t throw your life away. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t throw their lives away.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t give a damn about their lives,Ã¢â¬ Damon hissed. The truth also, Bonnie thought, curiously unoffended. There was only one life Damon cared about here, and it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t his own. Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, you do!Ã¢â¬ Stefan flared back. He was hanging on to DamonÃ¢â¬â¢s hand with just as fierce a grip, as if this was a contest and he could force Damon to concede that way. Ã¢â¬Å"Elena had a last request; well, this is mine. You have Power, Damon. I want you to use it to help them.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"StefanÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Bonnie whispered helplessly. Ã¢â¬Å"Promise me,Ã¢â¬ Stefan said to Damon, and then a spasm of pain twisted his face. For uncountable seconds Damon simply looked down at him. Then he said, Ã¢â¬Å"I promise,Ã¢â¬ quick and sharp as the stroke of a dagger. He let go of StefanÃ¢â¬â¢s hand and stood, turning to Bonnie. Ã¢â¬Å"Come on.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"We canÃ¢â¬â¢t leave himÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, we can.Ã¢â¬ There was nothing young about DamonÃ¢â¬â¢s face now. Nothing vulnerable. Ã¢â¬Å"You and your human friends are leaving here, permanently. I am coming back.Ã¢â¬ Bonnie shook her head. She knew, dimly, that Damon wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t betraying Stefan, that it was some case of Damon putting StefanÃ¢â¬â¢s ideals above StefanÃ¢â¬â¢s life, but it was all too abstruse and incomprehensible to her. She didnÃ¢â¬â¢t understand it and she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to. All she knew was that Stefan couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be left lying there. Ã¢â¬Å"YouÃ¢â¬â¢re coming now,Ã¢â¬ Damon said, reaching for her, the steely ring back in his voice. Bonnie prepared herself for a fight, and then something happened that made all their debating meaningless. There was a crack like a giant whip and a flash like daylight, and Bonnie was blinded. When she could see through the afterimage, her eyes flew to the flames that were licking up from a newly blackened hole at the base of a tree. BonnieÃ¢â¬â¢s eye darted to him next, as the only other thing moving in the clearing. He was waving the bloody white ash stake heÃ¢â¬â¢d pulled out of his own back like a gory trophy. Lightning rod, thought Bonnie illogically, and then there was another crash. It stabbed down from an empty sky, in huge blue-white forks that lit everything like the sun at noon. Bonnie watched as one tree and then another was hit, each one closer than the last. Flames licked up like hungry red goblins among the leaves. Two trees on either side of Bonnie exploded, with cracks so loud that she felt rather than heard it, a piercing pain in her eardrums. Damon, whose eyes were more sensitive, threw up a hand to protect them. Then he shouted Ã¢â¬Å"Klaus!Ã¢â¬ and sprang toward the blond man. He wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t stalking now; this was the deadly race of attack. The burst of killing speed of the hunting cat or the wolf. Lightning caught him in midspring. Bonnie screamed as she saw it, jumping to her feet. There was a blue flash of superheated gases and a smell of burning, and then Damon was down, lying motionless on his face. Bonnie could see tiny wisps of smoke rise from him, just as they did from the trees. Speechless with horror, she looked at Klaus. He was swaggering through the clearing, holding his bloody stick like a golf club. He bent down over Damon as he passed, and smiled. Bonnie wanted to scream again, but she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have the breath. There didnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem to be any air left to breathe. Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢ll deal with you later,Ã¢â¬ Klaus told the unconscious Damon. Then his face tipped up toward Bonnie. Ã¢â¬Å"You,Ã¢â¬ he said, Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m going to deal with right now.Ã¢â¬ It was an instant before she realized he was looking at Stefan, and not her. Those electric blue eyes were fixed on StefanÃ¢â¬â¢s face. They moved to StefanÃ¢â¬â¢s bloody middle. Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m going to eat you now, Salvatore.Ã¢â¬ Bonnie was all alone. The only one left standing. And she was afraid. But she knew what she had to do. She let her knees collapse again, dropping to the ground beside Stefan. And this is how it ends, she thought. You kneel beside your knight and then you face the enemy. She looked at Klaus and moved so that she was shielding Stefan. He seemed to notice her for the first time, and frowned as if heÃ¢â¬â¢d found a spider in his salad. Firelight flickered orange-red on his face. Ã¢â¬Å"No.Ã¢â¬ And this is how the ending starts. Like this, so simply, with one word, and youÃ¢â¬â¢re going to die on a summer night. A summer night when the moon and stars are shining and bonfires burn like the flames the Druids used to summon the dead. Ã¢â¬Å"Bonnie, go,Ã¢â¬ Stefan said painfully. Ã¢â¬Å"Get out while you can.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No,Ã¢â¬ Bonnie said. IÃ¢â¬â¢m sorry, Elena, she thought. I canÃ¢â¬â¢t save him. This is all I can do. Ã¢â¬Å"Get out of the way,Ã¢â¬ Klaus said through his teeth. Ã¢â¬Å"No.Ã¢â¬ She could wait and let Stefan die this way, instead of with KlausÃ¢â¬â¢s teeth in his throat. It might not seem like much of a difference, but it was the most she could offer. Ã¢â¬Å"BonnieÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Stefan whispered. Ã¢â¬Å"DonÃ¢â¬â¢t you know who I am, girl? IÃ¢â¬â¢ve walked with the devil. If you move, IÃ¢â¬â¢ll let you die quickly.Ã¢â¬ BonnieÃ¢â¬â¢s voice had given out. She shook her head. Klaus threw back his own head and laughed. A little more blood trickled out, too. Ã¢â¬Å"All right,Ã¢â¬ he said. Ã¢â¬Å"Have it your own way. Both of you go together.Ã¢â¬ Summer night, Bonnie thought. The solstice eve. When the line between worlds is so thin. Ã¢â¬Å"Say good night, sweetheart.Ã¢â¬ No time to trance, no time for anything. Nothing except one desperate appeal. Ã¢â¬Å"Elena!Ã¢â¬ Bonnie screamed. Ã¢â¬Å"Elena! Elena!Ã¢â¬ Klaus recoiled. For an instant, it seemed as if the name alone had the power to alarm him. Or as if he expected something to respond to BonnieÃ¢â¬â¢s cry. He stood, listening. Bonnie drew on her powers, putting everything she had into it, throwing her need and her call out into the void. And feltÃ¢â¬ ¦ nothing. Nothing disturbed the summer night except the crackling sound of flames. Klaus turned back to Bonnie and Stefan, and grinned. Then Bonnie saw the mist creeping along the ground. No-it couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be mist. It must be smoke from the fire. But it didnÃ¢â¬â¢t behave like either. It was swirling, rising in the air like a tiny whirlwind or dust devil. It was gathering into a shape roughly the size of a man. Mist was flowing out of the ground, between the trees. Pools of it, each separate and distinct. Bonnie, staring mutely, could see through each patch, could see the flames, the oak trees, the bricks of the chimney. Klaus had stopped smiling, stopped moving, and was watching too. Bonnie turned to Stefan, unable to even frame the question. Ã¢â¬Å"Unquiet spirits,Ã¢â¬ he whispered huskily, his green eyes intent. Ã¢â¬Å"The solstice.Ã¢â¬ And then Bonnie understood. They were coming. From across the river, where the old cemetery lay. From the woods, where countless makeshift graves had been dug to dump bodies in before they rotted. The unquiet spirits, the soldiers who had fought here and died during the Civil War. A supernatural host answering the call for help. They were forming all around. There were hundreds of them. Bonnie could actually see faces now. The misty outlines were filling in with pale hues like so many runny watercolors. She saw a flash of blue, a glimmer of gray. Both Union and Confederate troops. Bonnie glimpsed a pistol thrust into a belt, the glint of an ornamented sword. Chevrons on a sleeve. A bushy dark beard; a long, well-tended white one. A small figure, child size, with dark holes for eyes and a drum hanging at thigh level. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, my God,Ã¢â¬ she whispered. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, God.Ã¢â¬ It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t swearing. It was something like a prayer. Not that she wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t frightened of them, because she was. It was every nightmare sheÃ¢â¬â¢d ever had about the cemetery come true. Like her first dream about Elena, when things came crawling out of the black pits in the earth; only these things werenÃ¢â¬â¢t crawling, they were flying, skimming and floating until they swirled into human form. Everything that Bonnie had ever felt about the old graveyard-that it was alive and full of watching eyes, that there was some Power lurking behind its waiting stillness -was proving true. The earth of FellÃ¢â¬â¢s Church was giving up its bloody memories. The spirits of those whoÃ¢â¬â¢d died here were walking again. And Bonnie could feel their anger. It frightened her, but another emotion was waking up inside her, making her catch her breath and clench tighter on StefanÃ¢â¬â¢s hand. Because the misty army had a leader. One figure was floating in front of the others, closest to the place where Klaus stood. It had no shape or definition as yet, but it glowed and scintillated with the pale golden light of a candle flame. Then, before BonnieÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes, it seemed to take on substance from the air, shining brighter and brighter every minute with an unearthly light. It was brighter than the circle of fire. It was so bright that Klaus leaned back from it and Bonnie blinked, but when she turned at a low sound, she saw Stefan staring straight into it, fearlessly, with wide-open eyes. And smiling, so faintly, as if glad to have this be the last thing he saw. Klaus dropped the stake. He had turned away from Bonnie and Stefan to face the being of light that hung in the clearing like an avenging angel. Golden hair streaming back in an invisible wind, Elena looked down on him. Ã¢â¬Å"She came,Ã¢â¬ Bonnie whispered. Ã¢â¬Å"You asked her to,Ã¢â¬ Stefan murmured. His voice trailed off into a labored breath, but he was still smiling. His eyes were serene. Ã¢â¬Å"Stand away from them,Ã¢â¬ Elena said, her voice coming simultaneously to BonnieÃ¢â¬â¢s ears and her mind. It was like the chiming of dozens of bells, distant and close up at once. Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s over now, Klaus.Ã¢â¬ But Klaus rallied quickly. Bonnie saw his shoulders swell with a breath, noticed for the first time the hole in the back of the tan raincoat where the white ash stake had pierced him. It was stained dull red, and new blood was flowing now as Klaus flung out his arms. Ã¢â¬Å"You think IÃ¢â¬â¢m afraid of you?Ã¢â¬ he shouted. He spun around, laughing at all the pallid forms. Ã¢â¬Å"You think IÃ¢â¬â¢m afraid of any of you? YouÃ¢â¬â¢re dead! Dust on the wind! You canÃ¢â¬â¢t touch me!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"YouÃ¢â¬â¢re wrong,Ã¢â¬ Elena said in her wind-chime voice. Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m one of the Old Ones! An Original! Do you know what that means?Ã¢â¬ Klaus turned again, addressing all of them, his unnaturally blue eyes seeming to catch some of the red glow of the fire. Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢ve never died. Every one of you has died, you gallery of spooks! But not me. Death canÃ¢â¬â¢t touch me. I am invincible!Ã¢â¬ The last word came in a shout so loud it echoed among the trees. InvincibleÃ¢â¬ ¦ invincibleÃ¢â¬ ¦ invincible. Bonnie heard it fading into the hungry sound of the fire. Elena waited until the last echo had died. Then she said, very simply, Ã¢â¬Å"Not quite.Ã¢â¬ She turned to look at the misty shapes around her. Ã¢â¬Å"He wants to spill more blood here.Ã¢â¬ A new voice spoke up, a hollow voice that ran like a trickle of cold water down BonnieÃ¢â¬â¢s spine. Ã¢â¬Å"ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s been enough killing, I say.Ã¢â¬ It was a Union soldier with a double row of buttons on his jacket. Ã¢â¬Å"More than enough,Ã¢â¬ said another voice, like the boom of a faraway drum. A Confederate holding a bayonet. Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s time somebody stopped itÃ¢â¬ -an old man in home-dyed butternut cloth. Ã¢â¬Å"We canÃ¢â¬â¢t let it go onÃ¢â¬ -the drummer boy with the black holes for eyes. Ã¢â¬Å"No more blood spilled!Ã¢â¬ Several voices took it up at once. Ã¢â¬Å"No more killing!Ã¢â¬ The cry passed from one to another, until the swell of sound was louder than the roar of the fire. Ã¢â¬Å"No more blood!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You canÃ¢â¬â¢t touch me! You canÃ¢â¬â¢t kill me!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"LetÃ¢â¬â¢s take Ã¢â¬Ëim, boys!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You canÃ¢â¬â¢t kill me! IÃ¢â¬â¢m immortal!Ã¢â¬ The tornado swept away into the darkness beyond BonnieÃ¢â¬â¢s sight. Following it was a trail of ghosts like a cometÃ¢â¬â¢s tail, shooting off into the night sky. Ã¢â¬Å"Where are they taking him?Ã¢â¬ Bonnie didnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean to say it aloud; she just blurted it out before she thought. But Elena heard. Ã¢â¬Å"Where he wonÃ¢â¬â¢t do any harm,Ã¢â¬ she said, and the look on her face stopped Bonnie from asking any other questions. There was a squealing, bleating sound from the other side of the clearing. Bonnie turned and saw Tyler, in his terrible part-human, part-animal shape, on his feet. There was no need for CarolineÃ¢â¬â¢s club. He was staring at Elena and the few remaining ghostly figures and gibbering. Ã¢â¬Å"DonÃ¢â¬â¢t let them take me! DonÃ¢â¬â¢t let them take me too!Ã¢â¬ Before Elena could speak, he had spun around. He regarded the fire, which was higher than his own head, for an instant, then plunged right through it, crashing into the forest beyond. Through a parting of the flames, Bonnie saw him drop to the ground, beating out flames on himself, then rise and run again. Then the fire flared up and she couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t see anything more. But sheÃ¢â¬â¢d remembered something: Meredith-and Matt. Meredith was lying propped up, her head in CarolineÃ¢â¬â¢s lap, watching. Matt was still on his back. Hurt, but not so badly hurt as Stefan. Ã¢â¬Å"Elena,Ã¢â¬ Bonnie said, catching the bright figureÃ¢â¬â¢s attention, and then she simply looked at him. The brightness came closer. Stefan didnÃ¢â¬â¢t blink. He looked into the heart of the light and smiled. Ã¢â¬Å"HeÃ¢â¬â¢s been stopped now. Thanks to you.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"It was Bonnie who called us. And she couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have done it at the right place and the right time without you and the others.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I tried to keep my promise.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I know, Stefan.Ã¢â¬ Bonnie didnÃ¢â¬â¢t like the sound of this at all. It sounded too much like a farewell-a permanent one. Her own words floated back to her: He might go to another place or-or just go out. And she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want Stefan to go anywhere. Surely anyone who looked that much like an angelÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Å"Elena,Ã¢â¬ she said, Ã¢â¬Å"canÃ¢â¬â¢t you-do something? CanÃ¢â¬â¢t you help him?Ã¢â¬ Her voice was shaking. Ã¢â¬Å"I can do something,Ã¢â¬ she said. Ã¢â¬Å"But I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know if itÃ¢â¬â¢s the kind of help he wants.Ã¢â¬ She turned back to Stefan. Ã¢â¬Å"Stefan, I can cure what Klaus did. Tonight I have that much Power. But I canÃ¢â¬â¢t cure what Katherine did.Ã¢â¬ BonnieÃ¢â¬â¢s numbed brain struggled with this for a while. What Katherine did-but Stefan had recovered months ago from KatherineÃ¢â¬â¢s torture in the crypt. Then she understood. What Katherine had done was make Stefan a vampire. Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s been too long,Ã¢â¬ Stefan was saying to Elena. Ã¢â¬Å"If you did cure it, IÃ¢â¬â¢d be a pile of dust.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes.Ã¢â¬ Elena didnÃ¢â¬â¢t smile, just went on looking at him steadily. Ã¢â¬Å"Do you want my help, Stefan?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"To go on living in this world in the shadowsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ StefanÃ¢â¬â¢s voice was a whisper now, his green eyes distant. Bonnie wanted to shake him. Live, she thought to him, but she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t dare say it for fear sheÃ¢â¬â¢d make him decide just the opposite. Then she thought of something else. Ã¢â¬Å"To go on trying,Ã¢â¬ she said, and both of them looked at her. She looked back, chin thrust out, and saw the beginning of a smile on ElenaÃ¢â¬â¢s bright lips. Elena turned to Stefan, and that tiny hint of a smile passed to him. Ã¢â¬Å"Yes,Ã¢â¬ he said quietly, and then, to Elena, Ã¢â¬Å"I want your help.Ã¢â¬ She bent and kissed him. Bonnie saw the brightness flow from her to Stefan, like a river of sparkling light engulfing him. It flooded over him the way the dark mist had surrounded Klaus, like a cascade of diamonds, until his entire body glowed like ElenaÃ¢â¬â¢s. For an instant Bonnie imagined she could see the blood inside him turned molten, flowing out to each vein, each capillary, healing everything it touched. Then the glow faded to a golden aura, soaking back into StefanÃ¢â¬â¢s skin. His shirt was still demolished, but underneath the flesh was smooth and firm. Bonnie, feeling her own eyes wide with wonder, couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t help reaching out to touch. It felt just like any skin. The horrible wounds were gone. She laughed aloud with sheer excitement, and then looked up, sobering. Ã¢â¬Å"Elena- thereÃ¢â¬â¢s Meredith, too-Ã¢â¬Å" The bright being that was Elena was already moving across the clearing. Meredith looked up at her from CarolineÃ¢â¬â¢s lap. Ã¢â¬Å"Hello, Elena,Ã¢â¬ she said, almost normally, except that her voice was so weak. Elena bent and kissed her. The brightness flowed again, encompassing Meredith. And when it faded, Meredith stood up on her own two feet. Then she went to Damon. He was still lying where he had fallen. The ghosts had passed over him, taking no notice of him. ElenaÃ¢â¬â¢s brightness hovered over him, one shining hand reaching to touch his hair. Then she bent and kissed the dark head on the ground. As the sparkling light faded, Damon sat up and shook his head. He saw Elena and went still, then, every movement careful and self-contained, stood up. He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t say anything, only looked as Elena turned back to Stefan. He was silhouetted against the fire. Bonnie had scarcely noticed how the red glow had grown so that it almost eclipsed ElenaÃ¢â¬â¢s gold. But now she saw it and felt a thrill of alarm. Ã¢â¬Å"My last gift to you,Ã¢â¬ Elena said, and it began to rain. Not a thunder-and-lightning storm, but a thorough pattering rain that soaked everything-Bonnie included-and doused the fire. It was fresh and cool, and it seemed to wash all the horror of the last hours away, cleansing the glade of everything that had happened there. Bonnie tilted her face up to it, shutting her eyes, wanting to stretch out her arms and embrace it. At last it slackened and she looked again at Elena. Elena was looking at Stefan, and there was no smile on her lips now. The wordless sorrow was back in her face. Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s midnight,Ã¢â¬ she said. Ã¢â¬Å"And I have to go.Ã¢â¬ Bonnie knew instantly, at the sound of it, that Ã¢â¬Å"goÃ¢â¬ didnÃ¢â¬â¢t just mean for the moment. Ã¢â¬Å"GoÃ¢â¬ meant forever. Elena was going somewhere that no trance or dream could reach. And Stefan knew it too. Ã¢â¬Å"Just a few more minutes,Ã¢â¬ he said, reaching for her. Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m sorry-Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"Elena, wait-I need to tell you-Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"I canÃ¢â¬â¢t!Ã¢â¬ For the first time the serenity of that bright face was destroyed, showing not only gentle sadness but tearing grief. Ã¢â¬Å"Stefan, I canÃ¢â¬â¢t wait. IÃ¢â¬â¢m so sorry.Ã¢â¬ It was as if she were being pulled backward, retreating from them into some dimension that Bonnie could not see. Maybe the same place Honoria went when her task was finished, Bonnie thought. To be at peace. But ElenaÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes didnÃ¢â¬â¢t look as if she were at peace. They clung to Stefan, and she reached out her hand toward his, hopelessly. They didnÃ¢â¬â¢t touch. Wherever Elena was being pulled was too far away. Ã¢â¬Å"Elena-please!Ã¢â¬ It was the voice Stefan had called her with in his room. As if his heart was breaking. Ã¢â¬Å"Stefan,Ã¢â¬ Elena called again, but her voice came as if from a long distance. The brightness was almost gone. Then, as Bonnie stared through helpless tears, it winked out. Leaving the clearing silent once again. They were all gone, the ghosts of FellÃ¢â¬â¢s Church who had walked for one night to keep more blood from being spilled. The bright spirit that had led them had vanished without a trace, and even the moon and stars were covered by clouds. Bonnie knew that the wetness on StefanÃ¢â¬â¢s face wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t due to the rain that was still splashing down. He was standing, chest heaving, looking at the last place where ElenaÃ¢â¬â¢s brightness had been seen. And all the longing and the pain Bonnie had glimpsed on his face at times before was nothing to what she saw now. Ã¢â¬Å"It isnÃ¢â¬â¢t fair,Ã¢â¬ she whispered. Then she shouted it to the sky, not caring who she was addressing. Ã¢â¬Å"It isnÃ¢â¬â¢t fair!Ã¢â¬ Stefan had been breathing more and more quickly. Now he lifted his face too, not in anger but in unbearable pain. His eyes were searching the clouds as if he might find some last trace of golden light, some flicker of brightness there. He couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t. Bonnie saw the spasm go through him, like the agony of KlausÃ¢â¬â¢s stake. And the cry that burst out of him was the most terrible thing sheÃ¢â¬â¢d ever heard. Ã¢â¬Å"Elena!Ã¢â¬ How to cite The Vampire Diaries: Dark Reunion Chapter Fifteen, Essay examples
Saturday, May 2, 2020
Questions: 1.Multisegment Targeting Offers Many Benefits to Firms, as well as Many Additional Costs. List two benefits and four Costs of Multisegment Targeting. Provide Examples and Elaboration.2.Name and Describe four Categories of New Products.3.List the Four Stages of the Product life Cycle. Then describe the Promotional Strategies used in each Stage.4.Describe all four tools of the Promotional mix to Promote the Product. Answers: Benefits and costs of multi-segmenting For a company to succeed there is the need for segmenting the market so that the parts of the market can be served best and makes the company profitable at the same time. The need for strategies that enhance the best relationships with the right customers is always a priority for many firms that are competing. The traditional mass marketing that used to be a custom for most companies is now being abandoned. The companies are now producing products that are tailored to meet specific needs of the customers. It has been noted that consumers have varying tastes and preferences and as such segmenting and targeting such customers have benefited most companies that engage in such practices of segmentation. One of the advantages of segmentation is that it increases the focus on the enterprise. Segmentation has the power of enabling a company focus on specific market segments. The returns in most cases increase with increases in attention. A good example is the automobile industry li ke Toyota who started focusing on sectors that deal with small cars, a move that has seen Toyota rise globally. Multi-segmenting increases the competitiveness of the company. Once a company focuses on a particular segment it means that such a firm will innovate products that suit such a market making the business more competitive as compared to the competitors. A good illustration is the Johnsons baby products that segmented the baby market and specializes in baby stuffs a move that has seen Johnson claim a large portion of the market share globally. However, there are some limitations with multi segmenting and are referred to as the costs. With the geographic segmentation, it is limited in scope in the sense that it generalizes the tastes and preferences of consumers. The geographic segmentation requires combination with another strategy so as to be effective. Segments, on the other hand, tend to be small which may affect the operation of a firm. In the case that the marke t served is small, it means the company will experience low turnover which threatens a companys viability in the long-run. In a market that has many brands, it may be risky segmenting such markets due to the many competitors providing such products. As a consequence, there are additional costs that reduce the profits for the firm. Lastly, in the case of a new product, it may be deemed risky segmenting such a market as no research has been conducted on such new products. Convincing the consumers to utilize such commodities may take extra effort so as to segment such a market. 2.Categories of new products Products can get categorized into various classifications depending on the level they are placed on the market. One category is that of new to world products where a company goes an extra mile producing a product that has never existed before. In this category, the firm diversifies the product, and in most cases, the products are only new to the firm but not to the already existing the market. A good illustration is the Coca-Cola Company that is well known for the good quality of its beverages. If Coca Cola decides to diversify into snacks and cookies, then these new products would be classified as the new for the Coca-Cola Company. The second classification is the product line extension which is the companys additional of more products to the already existing stock. In this category, a company develops a brand that stands out among others regarding color, shape, and texture. In the example of Coca-Cola Company, as it has been observed, the company is producing an additional product such as mineral water and juices and as such would get considered as additional products. With product improvements, it entails making amendments to the existing product that is in the marketplace. In most cases, the change may be minor or major and may involve developing the features of the products to suit the changing needs of the consumers. In some cases, the process is aimed at updating the products so that they meet the standards that are in the market or it may be the case of technological improvement making the commodities to be improved at the same time. Such upgrades may make the product competitive and increase the benefits that consumers can get from such a product. A good example is the Microsoft that has always been updating the windows, for instance, there was Windows 7, then Windows 8 and currently the consumers are using Windows 10. Finally, product repositioning involves changing the image of a product in the marketplace; however, the product in most instances is an existing product. In most instances, there is communication that is intended to depict the range of benefits from such a product. Reposition of the product is also followed by changing the design of the product either through the mode of packaging. A good illustration is when in the past, Lucozade was meant for the sick, but as of today, it has been repositioned to serve the athletes. 3.Product lifecycle Consumers have the tendency of purchasing products in the markets worth millions of money every year. The products purchased just like the human beings have a lifecycle meaning that there are those products that exit the market earlier as compared to the others. The new products, on the other hand, have the advantage of being dominant in the market and gaining popularity. Most companies, on the other hand, have invested heavily in product development after realizing that their products have a limited lifespan and it is, therefore, their responsibility to make sure they remain relevant in the market. As products move and evolve along the four stages, various stages should be employed to maintain the success of the product. The promotional strategies that can be employed are as follows: Introduction When launching a new product in the market, the main objective of the firm will be to inform the target group of the existence of such a product. Launching a new product is the most expensive stage for any company. At this stage, it will be critical to employ informative advertising such as the radio, television, and magazines. Growth At this stage, it is characterized by increase in the sales volume and profits. It is at this stage that the company enjoys the economies of scale which has the effect of pushing the profits margins up. The firms as a result of reaping the profits have the advantage of spending money on the promotional strategies with the aim of maximizing their potential. Since the product has already gained acceptance from the target market, the firm will use a strategy that aims at increasing the loyalty of the customers. Maturity At maturity stage, the product is already established, and in most instances, the manufacturer aims at maintaining the market share. It is at this juncture that competition is at its highest among the firms and businesses are advised to invest wisely in any market they wish to penetrate. The product should also be in a position to undergo modifications or upgrades which can make them more competitive in the market. Since the product experiences more competition from the other brands, there is need to engage in persuasive advertising to entice their clients to use their products over those produced by the competitors. The benefits or advantages of using a product should be communicated to the audience clearly. Decline The market for the product at this stage begins to decline a stage referred to as the decline stage. The decline could be associated with a market getting saturated or because the consumers have switched to a particular product. The decline stage though inevitable, it still provides opportunities for companies to continue reaping profits through reducing the costs of production or firms venturing into cheaper markets. Reminder advertising would be favorable at this stage reminding consumers that the product still exists. 4.Tools of promotional mix One of the instruments is advertising where it is necessary that awareness of the new program should be created either through the flyers conveying the message on weight loss. Advertising can also assume the dimensions of the media through the television, radio, and internet. Sales promotion is also another useful tool. In this case, since the program is very in the market, it would be necessary to have the customers believe that there will be price cuts may be 15% off would be a great deal and attract many customers. Public relations are aimed at creating a lasting impression about the company. Holding a charity campaign for the neighborhood may create a good deal for the new program. Publicity may entail inviting some prominent person who gets featured in advertising campaigns using the new products. Personal selling has always held the compelling power of convincing the customers to purchase the products. Conducting door to door campaigns informing people of the new product and its advantages and benefits has the power of inducing some people to join the program. References Akers, Helen. 2017. "What Is Multi-Segment Marketing?". Smallbusiness.Chron.Com. https://smallbusiness.chron.com/multisegment-marketing-25419.html. Bhasin, Hitesh. 2016. "6 Advantages Of Segmentation - Benefits Of Segmentation".Marketing91.Com. https://www.marketing91.com/6-advantages-segmentation/. Bhasin, Hitesh. 2017. "Limitations Of Segmentation - Disadvantages Of Segmentation".Marketing91.Com. https://www.marketing91.com/limitations-segmentation/. Chand, Smiriti. 2017. "Advantages And Disadvantages Of Market Segmentation".Yourarticlelibrary.Com: The Next Generation Library. Accessed April https://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/marketing/marketing-management/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-market-segmentation/27955/. Chand, Smiriti. 2017. "5 Main Stages Of Product Life Cycle". Yourarticlelibrary.Com: The Next Generation Library. Accessed April 1. https://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/marketing/product/5-main-stages-of-product-life-cycle/29855/. Claessens, Maximilian. 2017. "Categories Of New Products - What Is A New Product? -Marketing-Insider". Marketing-Insider. https://marketing-insider.eu/categories-of-new-products/. Converse, Paul Dulaney, and Fred Mitchell Jones. 2008. Introduction To Marketing.Place of publication not identified]: [Meisel Press]. Foundation, Edward Lowe. 2017. "How To Establish A Promotional Mix-Edward Lowe .Foundation". Edward Lowe Foundation. https://edwardlowe.org/how-to-establish-a-promotional-mix/.Gorchels, Linda. 2012. The Product Manager's Handbook. 1st ed. New York:McGraw-Hill. Grace, Karen. 2017. "Categories Of New Products". Prezi.Com. Accessed April 1.https://prezi.com/pikbvyepyr1l/categories-of-new-products/. Jobber, David, and Fiona Ellis-Chadwick. 2016. Principles And Practice Of Marketing.London: McGraw-Hill Education. Kurtz, David L, and Louis E Boone. 2007. Principles Of Marketing. Australia: Thomson.Lombardo, Jennifer. 2017. "Types Of New Products: New Product Lines, ProductImprovements More - Video Lesson Transcript | Study.Com". Study.Com. Accessed April 1. https://study.com/academy/lesson/types-of-new-products-new-product-lines-product-improvements-more.html. Manis, KT. 2014. "Promoting Products: 5 Components Of The Promotional Mix". https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/20141002042202-284765029-promoting-products-5-components-of-the-promotional-mix. Morello, Robert. 2017. "What Is Multi-Segment Marketing?". Yourbusiness.Azcentral.Com. https://yourbusiness.azcentral.com/multisegment-marketing-13056.html. Mulder, Patty. 2014. "Product Life Cycle Stages Theory By Raymond Vernon |oolshero". Toolshero. https://www.toolshero.com/marketing/product-life-cycle-stages/. Peterson, Roger. 2007. Principles Of Marketing. Delhi: Global Media. Rizzi, Vanessa. 2017. "Why Market Segmentation Is Crucial For Your Business". Entrepreneurhandbook.Co.Uk. https://entrepreneurhandbook.co.uk/why-market-segmentation-is-crucial-for-your-business/. S, Nithya. 2017. "Top 5 Elements Of Promotional Mix | Products". Essays, Research Papers And Articles On Business Management. https://www.businessmanagementideas.com/advertisement/promotional-mix/top- 5-elements-of-promotional-mix-products/8114.V, Martin. 2014. "Marketing Mix | Promotion In Four P's". Cleverism. https://www.cleverism.com/promotion-four-ps-marketing-mix Akers, Helen. 2017. "What Is Multi-Segment Marketing?". Smallbusiness.Chron.Com.https://smallbusiness.chron.com/multisegment-marketing-25419.html. Kurtz, David L, and Louis E Boone. 2007. Principles Of Marketing. Australia: Thomson.Bhasin, Hitesh. 2016. "6 Advantages Of Segmentation - Benefits Of Segmentation".Marketing91.Com. https://www.marketing91.com/6-advantages-segmentation/ Chand, Smiriti. 2017. "Advantages And Disadvantages Of Market Segmentation". Yourarticlelibrary.Com: The Next Generation Library. Accessed April 1. https://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/marketing/marketing-management/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-market-segmentation/27955/. [Rizzi, Vanessa. 2017. "Why Market Segmentation Is Crucial For Your Business". Entrepreneurhandbook.Co.Uk. https://entrepreneurhandbook.co.uk/why-market-segmentation-is-crucial-for-your-business/. Bhasin, Hitesh. 2017. "Limitations Of Segmentation - Disadvantages Of Segmentation". Marketing91.Com. https://www.marketing91.com/limitations-segmentation/ Morello, Robert. 2017. "What Is Multi-Segment Marketing?". Yourbusiness.Azcentral.Com. https://yourbusiness.azcentral.com/multisegment-marketing-13056.html. Gorchels, Linda. 2012. The Product Manager's Handbook. 1st ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. Claessens, Maximilian. 2017. "Categories Of New Products - What Is A New Product? - Marketing-Insider". Marketing-Insider. https://marketing-insider.eu/categories-of-new-products/. Grace, Karen. 2017. "Categories Of New Products". Prezi.Com. Accessed April 1. https://prezi.com/pikbvyepyr1l/categories-of-new-products/. Lombardo, Jennifer. 2017. "Types Of New Products: New Product Lines, Product Improvements More - Video Lesson Transcript | Study.Com". Study.Com. Accessed April 1. https://study.com/academy/lesson/types-of-new-products-new-product-lines-product-improvements-more.html. Peterson, Roger. 2007. Principles Of Marketing. Delhi: Global Media. Chand, Smiriti. 2017. "5 Main Stages Of Product Life Cycle". Yourarticlelibrary.Com: The Next Generation Library. Accessed April 1. https://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/marketing/product/5-main-stages-of-product-life-cycle/29855/. Mulder, Patty. 2014. "Product Life Cycle Stages Theory By Raymond Vernon | Toolshero". Toolshero. https://www.toolshero.com/marketing/product-life-cycle-stages/. Converse, Paul Dulaney, and Fred Mitchell Jones. 2008. Introduction To Marketing. [Place of publication not identified]: [Meisel Press]. Foundation, Edward Lowe. 2017. "How To Establish A Promotional Mix - Edward Lowe Foundation". Edward Lowe Foundation. https://edwardlowe.org/how-to-establish-a-promotional-mix/. Jobber, David, and Fiona Ellis-Chadwick. 2016. Principles And Practice Of Marketing. London: McGraw-Hill Education. Manis, KT. 2014. "Promoting Products: 5 Components Of The Promotional Mix". https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/20141002042202-284765029-promoting-products-5-components-of-the-promotional-mix. V, Martin. 2014. "Marketing Mix | Promotion In Four P's". Cleverism. https://www.cleverism.com/promotion-four-ps-marketing-mix/. S, Nithya. 2017. "Top 5 Elements Of Promotional Mix | Products". Essays, Research Papers And Articles On Business Management. https://www.businessmanagementideas.com/advertisement/promotional-mix/top-5-elements-of-promotional-mix-products/8114.